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The Brain-Heart Team Approach: Secondary Prevention After a Presumed PFO-Mediated Stroke Toolkit
Grand Rounds Toolkit
Are you on faculty for an upcoming grand rounds? Consider these resources including slide with presenter notes and videos from SCAI's PFO closure symposium titled, "The Brain-Heart Team Approach: Secondary Prevention After a Presume PFO-Mediated Stroke."
Course Information
Module 1: New Insights into the Epidemiology and Classification of Cryptogenic and PFO-Associated Stroke
Module 2: Efficacy and Safety of PFO Closure to Prevent Stroke–Review of RCTs and Subsequent Data
Module 3: The Neurologist’s Role in the Evaluation of Patients with Cryptogenic Ischemic Stroke
Module 4: The Cardiologist’s Role in the Evaluation of Patients with Cryptogenic Stroke
Module 5: Case(s) from the Neurology Clinic: Thoughts from a PFO Clinic
Module 6: Cases from the Cardiology Clinic: To Close or Not to Close?
Module 7: Building Your Stroke Prevention/Brain-Heart Team (Panel Discussion)
Learning Objectives:
At the end of the course, all participants will be able to:

1. Describe the epidemiology and burden of cryptogenic ischemic stroke.
2. List competencies and resources necessary to constitute a Brain-Heart team.
3. Perform the complete evaluation of ischemic stroke patients to determine stroke mechanism.
4. Describe key clinical trial data regarding the safety and efficacy of FDA-approved devices for PFO closure to prevent secondary stroke.
5. Suspect PFO in patients with cryptogenic stroke and ensure appropriate team-based evaluation.
6. Deploy shared decision-making principles with cryptogenic stroke patients with PFO to determine the patients preferred secondary stroke prevention strategies.
Faculty and Disclosures to Learners


  • Carroll, John. Consultant: Abbott.
  • Saver, Jeffrey.  Ownership Interests (Stocks, etc.): Abbott, Medtronic, BrainsGate, Stryker, Boehringer-Ingelheim (Prevention Only), Cerenovus / Neuravi Phagenesis, Rapid Medical.


  • Kasner, Scott. Consultant and Principal Investigator: WL Gore.
  • Messe, Steven. Principal Investigator: WL Gore.
  • Thaler, David. Consultant: Abbott.
  • Tobis, John. Consultant: Cardiac Dimensions Incorporated.


  • Ramadan, Ronnie. No relevant relationships with commercial interests to disclose.


  • Bartel, Robert. No relevant relationships with commercial interests to disclose.
Continuing Education Information
Accreditation Statement:
The Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) to provide continuing medical education for physicians.

Credit Designation:
The Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions designates this enduring activity for a maximum of 2.25 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.

Successful Completion:
To complete this activity: view the learning materials, take the post-test, and complete the evaluation. You will then be able to claim credit.
Acknowledgment of Commercial Support
This activity is supported by an unrestricted educational grant from W. L. Gore and Associates.

No in-kind support was received.
SCAI’s Independent Content:
As a provider of continuing medical education through the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME), it is the Society’s policy to ensure balance, independence, objectivity, and scientific rigor in all its activities. All participating faculty, course directors, planning committee members and staff are required to disclose to SCAI any relevant financial relationships. SCAI identifies relevant conflicts of interest and resolves them before the activity begins.

Planning Process:
SCAI activities are developed by the SCAI Planners prior to and independent of commercial support. Members of the Planning Committee reviewed and approved this activity, and those with relevant conflicts of interest recused themselves. Members of SCAI’s Continuing Medical Education Oversight Committee, clinicians in the field of cardiac catheterization and angiography, reviewed all educational materials and verified that the materials are fair, accurate, and free of commercial bias. 

Content Validation Statement:
SCAI accepts the following Content Validation Statements and expects all persons involved in its professional education activities to abide by these statements for clinical care recommendations. All clinical and pharmacological recommendations are based on evidence accepted within the medical profession as adequate jurisdiction for their indications and contradictions in patient care. All research referenced to support or justify patient care recommendations conforms to accepted standards of experimental design, data collection and analysis. SCAI encourages faculty to identify investigational products or off-label uses of products regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration, at first mention and where appropriate in the content.
© 2020-2021 Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions (SCAI). All rights reserved.
Availability: Retired
Cost: FREE
Credit Offered: No Credit Offered
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